Canine hip dysplasia genes identified

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Tana
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Canine hip dysplasia genes identified

Post by Tana » Wed May 14, 2014 9:22 pm

05/09/2014 08:39

Canine hip dysplasia genes identified
Sonja von Brethorst Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit
Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover

TiHo scientists unravel genes responsible for canine hip dysplasia.

Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) plays a central role in the selection of breeding animals ever since modern dog breeding began. This inherited condition is common in all dog breeds as well as in mongrels. Researchers at the Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation (TiHo), has identified important genetic variants and their interrelated pathways for the pathogenesis of CHD in German Shepherds. The scientists genotyped more than 1000 German Shepherds and screened a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for their association with CHD. Professor Dr. Ottmar Distl and his doctoral student Lena Fels have published their research results in the international online journal PLOS ONE (http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096618).

CHD is caused by a malformation and instability of the hip joints. The first attempts to breed against CHD started at the end of the 1960s due to the severity of this disease and its general significance for the health of dogs. The sole basis of the breeding programs was X-rays of both hip joints. Dogs with significant and severe changes were excluded from breeding. Systematic preventative programs have been established by most dog breeding associations and have become an integral part of the selection programs in purebred dog breeding.

The genetic mechanisms responsible for CHD involve the formation of cartilage and bone. The metabolic pathways show significant similarities with osteoarthritis and chondrodysplasia in humans. “Research of CHD is of fundamental importance in terms of understanding the processes that can lead to osteoarthritis in humans”, says Distl, head of the Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics at TiHo.

Dog breeding will significantly benefit from the research. “Despite the use of estimated breeding values (EBVs) for CHD, dogs affected with CHD are not uncommon and often unexpected according to the parental EBVs. This presents large problems for dog breeders. Handling of CHD-affected dogs is often difficult and dogs frequently suffer from the painful condition”, says Fels. Using these new results, CHD can be prevented much more effectively. Simulation studies using real population parameters and the new approach have demonstrated its superiority over traditional methods.

The genome-wide CHD-test is now available at the Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics at TiHo and can be provided to all breeders and owners of German Shepherds. Further details can be found on the homepage of the Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics (http://www.tiho-hannover.de/kliniken-in ... forschung/). Similar genome-wide tests have already been developed for Bernese Mountain dogs. The research on Bernese Mountain dogs was published in December 2012 at PLOS ONE (http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049782).

Future work by TiHo geneticists will focus on genome-wide, next-generation sequencing of dog samples. The objective is to sequence the entire genome for a large number of dogs of different breeds in order to detect polymorphisms and structural variants. This will enable us to compare CHD-affected dogs with dogs free of any signs of CHD and that show a very low risk for CHD in their progeny. “Using this approach, we will be in the position to map the CHD-associated mutations and provide new insights into the pathogenesis of CHD. As such, our research will be able to be extended to include many more different dog breeds”, says Distl.

The original publication
Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in German Shepherd Dogs
Lena Fels, Ottmar Distl
PLOS ONE, DOI: 10.137/ journal.pone.0096618

For specialised queries, please contact:

Professor Dr. Ottmar Distl
University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover
Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics
Tel.: +49 511 953-8875
ottmar.distl@tiho-hannover.de

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Re: Canine hip dysplasia genes identified

Post by Czertice » Fri Jun 20, 2014 8:51 am

This is interesting! I wish I knew more about genetics to see how closely related are Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs to German Shepherds in regard of validity of this test for CSWs... Also I didn't get how exactly do they determine the results? There is a whole spectrum of seriousness of the condition and it can change with time, how do they say - affected X clear?
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Re: Canine hip dysplasia genes identified

Post by Tana » Sat Jun 21, 2014 2:01 pm

Czertice wrote:Also I didn't get how exactly do they determine the results?
They determinate SNPs on different chromosomes, which are located within or in close proximity of genes involved in bone formation and related through a joint network.
Czertice wrote:There is a whole spectrum of seriousness of the condition and it can change with time, how do they say - affected X clear?
Spectrum of seriousness is also because of the environmental impact. Only 25% dogs with genes for CHD have visible signs. Enviromental impact is the most important in the first 60 days of puppies life, so the care of the breeder is the number one for prevention. Food with too much energy and proteins, adding vitamin D, improper balance of calcium and phosphorus, too much exercise can lead to incorrect growth of bones and cartilages. Only if puppies have genes for CHD, if they don't, they won't develope CHD in any case. Simplified, if they don't have those genes, they are clear.

If dog has signs of HD or ED, then is the question, what is the irregularity, maybe dog can handle it with building muscles (HD) or it leads to arthritis. Arthritis is getting worse with time, you can just slow it down.

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Re: Canine hip dysplasia genes identified

Post by Czertice » Thu Jun 26, 2014 10:25 am

Tana wrote:
Czertice wrote:Also I didn't get how exactly do they determine the results?
They determinate SNPs on different chromosomes, which are located within or in close proximity of genes involved in bone formation and related through a joint network.
Can you please tell me what SNPs are?
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Re: Canine hip dysplasia genes identified

Post by Tana » Thu Jun 26, 2014 5:55 pm

Sure. SNP is a single nucleotid polymorphism. One nucleotid is replaced with another (for example A to C) and represents the variation in the genetic code that differs between specimens. These genetic variations are also responsible for differences in susceptibility to disease.
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Re: Canine hip dysplasia genes identified

Post by Czertice » Mon Jun 30, 2014 9:15 am

I get it now, thanks! (At least I think:)
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